Australia is a very new and a very old country. Nobody knows exactly when the first people came to the continent. Scientists think that the first Australians arrived on the continent ca. 40,000 years ago. This is a very long time ago in human history.
For most of this long time, the first Australians (or Aboriginal people) were completely isolated from the rest of the world. We don’t know much about this past because the Aboriginal people didn’t leave written documents. But Aboriginal civilization and the Aboriginal languages may be the oldest in the world. They left great rock paintings. Music, song and oral literature were important too. Have you ever heard of the didgeridoo? It’s a famous Aboriginal musical instrument, a sort of wooden trumpet that can be more than a metre long. When you blow into it, it produces a very deep, hollow sound. The didgeridoo is one of the oldest wind instruments in the world.
The Aboriginal people lived as nomadic hunters, fishermen and gatherers. Their only animals were dogs. They didn’t build houses, streets or cathedrals. They didn’t have a government because they lived in hundreds of tribes and there were hundreds of different languages and dialects. The whole tribe or some older men made the decisions. But they were experts in finding water and food in the dry and hot country.
The Aboriginal people didn’t believe that the land belonged to them; they believed they belonged to the land. The land was their mother, and there were powerful spirits who had created the land and all the animals a long time ago. This period is called Creation Time or the Dreamtime. In some places– like Uluru– the spirits can still be felt. These places are special for the Aboriginal people. They use them for ceremonies and think they’re sacred. And they don’t like it when tourists don’t respect them.
The first Europeans came to Australia in the 17th century. They were Portuguese and Dutch sailors, who thought that the country was too hot and too dry and didn’t like it. So they quickly left again– often without even going on land.
The first European who actually wanted to explore the country and stay for some time was Captain James Cook in 1770– and that’s where most Australian history books start. So a lazy student would certainly choose Australian history as a school subject, because it is a lot shorter than other world histories!
James Cook was a British naval officer. He was sent to the Pacific to find and explore the unknown southern continent. He came from Tahiti and first reached Australia’s East Coast.
For the next four months, his ship (the Endeavour) followed the coast for 3,000 kilometres and nearly crashed into the Great Barrier Reef. Cook found a nice place near Sydney and named it Botany Bay because of the many plants that his men discovered there. On 21st August, 1770, James Cook put up the British flag and claimed the land for Great Britain.
James Cook’s first meetings with Aboriginal people were friendly, but things soon went wrong because of different traditions. The Aboriginal people did not think that land belongs to someone and for them it was not possible to own an animal. So when they started hunting the cattle that the new settlers had brought with them, people said they were stealing and many Aboriginal people were killed.
Animals (like pigs, sheep and cows) were not the only things that the Europeans brought with them. New diseases landed in Australia with the European ships and many Aboriginal people became ill and died because their bodies couldn’t fight these diseases. Many also died of alcohol.
Convicts and settlers
At first there weren’t many settlers. Australia was far away from Europe and for the Europeans there was nothing of great value there. But in January 1788 eleven British ships came to Botany Bay. These ships were carrying 570 male and 191 female prisoners and children– and 2000 soldiers to guard them.
Life in England in the 18th century was very hard. There were lots of poor people and a lot of crime. Punishments were very strict, for example you could be hanged for stealing bread. In Britain the prisons were full, so the government decided to send these convicts to Australia. It was far away and the people would be no more trouble for England. Over the next 80 years, 165,000 prisoners arrived in Australia. After seven years they were free and could find a place to settle and stay. These convicts are the ancestors of millions of Australians today.
One of the most famous descendants of these convicts was Ned Kelly. He was born in 1854 in Melbourne as the son of a convict from Ireland. Ned had lots of brothers and sisters and his family was very poor and had a hard life. Young Ned and his brothers got into trouble with the police when they were teenagers. Ned was very angry and thought that the police was unfair. So he decided to rob banks to get money for his family and other poor people. He believed that the poor people of Australia should fight against the English and the police. The Kelly Gang was very famous, but finally Ned and his men were caught by the police in the famous shoot-out at Glenrowan. Ned Kelly was sentenced to death for murder and hanged in Melbourne in 1880. For some people he is a criminal, others think that he was a hero because he fought against injustice and wanted a better life for the poor. There are many films and books about his life.
More immigrants from Europe and Asia
A large number of immigrants came to Australia (double the number of convicts) when gold was discovered in 1851. Most of the people did not find much gold, but they didn’t have enough money to pay for a ticket home, so they had to stay in Australia.
A similar trend happened after the end of World War II 1945. People wanted to start new lives in a country that hadn’t been destroyed by the war. The new immigrants were welcome to the Australian government because the country needed more people. And there was a new trend: people came not only from Britain, but also from Scandinavia, Germany, Holland, Eastern Europe and Southern Europe– about 5.5 million. After 1973, immigrants from Asia were allowed to move to Australia. The population today is still relatively small for such a large country as Australia– just under 22 million people. The larger part of the population (around 70%) lives in cities.
The Stolen Generations and National Sorry Day
In the 20th century the Australian government wanted to integrate Aboriginal people into white society. They decided to take Aboriginal children away from their parents and try to make them members of Australian society. From about 1910 to 1970 mostly mixed-race Aboriginal children (for example from a white father and an Aboriginal mother) were taken away from their families and brought to special homes or camps. This happened to one fourth of all Aboriginal children. They’re called the Stolen Generations. Often they were told that their parents were dead or didn’t want them. This breaking up of families has led to problems for many Aboriginal people. When these children were adults, lots of them tried to find their families. And they wanted the government to say sorry. Since 1998 there has been an unofficial national holiday on the 26th of May called National Sorry Day. But it was only in 2008 that the Australian government officially said “sorry” to the Stolen Generations.
Can you do Australia in 3 weeks? ›
Three weeks is long enough to see much of the highlights of Australia. It's unlikely you will be able to fit in the whole country in three weeks (it's massive), but you can see the best parts of Queensland and the East Coast, New South Wales, Victoria, and some parts of South Australia.Why Australia is the best country to live in? ›
Living in Australia means encountering many opportunities; it is a young, multicultural and open country with an ever-growing economy. Australia's quality of life and unrivalled natural beauty make it the ideal destination for you if you have ever dreamed about improving your future.How long do I have to enter Australia after visa granted? ›
the first entry arrival date (initial arrival date) as specified in your visa grant letter has passed or will pass before you can travel to Australia. you plan to travel to Australia within the next 12 months.Is Australia a beautiful country? ›
What you love: “Mountains, snow, deserts, rainforests, beautiful beaches - Australia has it all” for its “beautiful diversity in culture" and "friendly, laidback people”. coast. too.What is the cheapest month to travel to Australia? ›
The cheapest airfare tends to be during the low season, which runs from May 1 through the first week in June, and again from about the third week in July through the third week in September.How much money do you need in the bank to go to Australia? ›
You should have copies of your bank account showing you have adequate funds to support yourself (usually the equivalent of AUD $5000), as well as a return air ticket or extra funds to be able to pay for your journey home.What is Australia famous for? ›
Australia is known for many things, including swathes of tropical beaches, marine reserves, Aboriginal culture, cute koalas, rolling wine country, and lush rainforests.What is Australia number 1 in the world? ›
Australia is globally famous for its natural wonders, wide-open spaces, beaches, deserts, "The Bush", and "The Outback". Australia is one of the world's most highly urbanised countries; it's well known for its attractive mega cities such as Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, and Perth.What if Australia visa gets rejected? ›
If your visa request is denied, you have to apply for an appeal at the Administrative Appeals Tribunal (AAT). You can either apply online at the official website of the AAT or send a paper application; online applications are easier to review.
Does marrying an Australian give me citizenship? ›
If you've married an Australian citizen but are not one yourself, you still have to apply for Australian citizenship. The Department of Home Affairs has information on: temporary partner visas, which let you live, work and study in Australia while your permanent partner visa is being processed.Does Australian PR expire? ›
Does Australian Permanent Residency (PR) expire? No, your Australia PR visa does not expire. Once you are granted the status of a permanent resident, you are allowed to live in Australia indefinitely.Which is the No 1 beautiful country? ›
Coming in at the top of the list as the most beautiful place on earth is Indonesia, which has a natural beauty score of 7.77 out of 10. Indonesia is home to more than 17,000 islands.Is Australia is a rich country? ›
You're rich! Australia is now home to 2.2 million millionaires, according to a new study. Half of all Australians in 2021 had more than $400,000 in wealth. It means we have the highest median wealth of all the countries studied.Why is Australia called Lucky country? ›
The phrase 'the lucky country', originated by author Donald Horne in 1964, has been used in the past few decades to describe Australia as a land of economic opportunity and bountiful natural resources.How much money do I need for 2 weeks in Australia? ›
How much should I budget for a trip to Australia? A reasonable budget for two for a week in Australia is around A$2,589. The above cost is based on staying in good, mid-range accommodation and having a few meals out per week, while preparing some yourself.How many days in Australia is enough? ›
For a more immersive Australian experience, six to 10 days is often enough to get a good taste of what Australia has to offer (though we're sure you'll leave wanting more). With this amount of time, your best bet is to pick a coast – either the east or the west.How much is a visa to Australia? ›
|Visa Type||Fee (in AUD)||Fee if you apply from within Australia (in AUD)|
|Student Visa-subclass 500, 590||630||630|
|Training Visa- subclass 407||315||315|
|Temporary Graduate Visa- subclass 485||1,680||1,680|
|Working Holiday-subclass 417, 462||495||495|
Stay up to 3 months each time you enter Australia. All ETA-eligible passport holders must apply for an ETA using the Australian ETA app. For more information, see our Step by step guide. If you are unable to use the app, you can apply online through ImmiAccount for another visa that suits your needs.What is the easiest way to go to Australia? ›
- Employer-Sponsored Visa. ...
- Skilled Visa. ...
- Medical Visa. ...
- Working Holiday Visa. ...
- Business Visa. ...
- Investor Retirement. ...
- Student Visa. ...
- Partner/Family Visa:
What is needed to move to Australia? ›
In order to be eligible for this visa you must:
Be aged between 18 and 31. Have a passport from an eligible country. Have saved AU $5,000 to support yourself during your stay. Have not previously entered Australia on a Work and Holiday (Temporary) visa (subclass 462 visa)
- Fairy Bread.
- Tim Tams!
- Meat Pies.
- Anzac Biscuits.
- Chicken Parma (AKA Chicken Parmigiana)
- Witchetty Grub.
Roast lamb has been declared Australia's national dish in a major poll that shows we're still a country of meat eaters at heart. The poll, held on News Ltd websites across all mainland capitals, attracted more than 24,000 votes. It revealed three clear front-runners – all of them meat-based.What is Australia called? ›
Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under" (usually shortened to just "Down Under"). Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", and "the Wide Brown Land".Is Australia a safest country? ›
There's no doubt Australia is one of the safest countries for foreigners. Sydney is a very low-risk city that has taken proactive steps regarding everything from personal safety to digital security. Melbourne has also been highly rated for its levels of safety.What are the 7 countries in Australia? ›
Countries comprising Australia as a continent
- The Marshall Islands.
- New Zealand.
- mutual respect.
- compassion for those in need.
- equality of opportunity for all.
“How ya goin'?” is the ultimate Aussie greeting. If you're not from Australia, this mash-up of “How are you?” and “Where are you going?” might leave you a little perplexed. If it helps, think of how the Brits say “y'alright?” - it requires no detailed response. In fact, a simple “hey!” will suffice.Is Australia visa difficult to get? ›
It will not be difficult to get a tourist visa to Australia, provided you meet the following conditions: Provide complete and accurate documents. You have no criminal cases pending against you. You have enough finances to meet your expenses in Australia.Is Australia visa easy to get? ›
Yes, it is easy to get an Australian tourist visa. But you have to meet the necessary requirements. What is the validity of the Australia tourist visa? The validity of the Australia tourist visa is one year (maximum).
How can we avoid visa rejection in Australia? ›
The applicant needs to satisfy the Department of Home Affairs by providing enough documents of the financial stability. It is one of the major reasons for the Australian Visa refusal. Financial support documents can be either from the home country or from a known person who has a visa for Australia.Can I marry my girlfriend on a tourist visa in Australia? ›
this is a very common question and the answer is yes you can marry in Australia on a tourist visa (subclass 600) be it 3 months or 6 months there are no restrictions getting legally married.How much money do you need to survive in Australia? ›
Meanwhile, collaborative database Expatistan estimates the current cost of living for a single person in Australia is actually an eye-watering $3,655 per month.Can my boyfriend sponsor me to live in Australia? ›
Partner visa (Permanent)
This visa lets the de facto partner or spouse of an Australian citizen, Australian permanent resident or eligible New Zealand citizen live in Australia permanently. It is usually only for people who currently hold a temporary Partner visa (subclass 820).
After 5 years, your travel facility expires. You will need to apply for and be granted either: a Resident Return visa - if you wish to re-enter Australia as a permanent resident. Australian citizenship - if you wish to travel as an Australian citizen.Can Australian PR be rejected? ›
If you have a history of wrongdoing, your visa application may be refused based on your immigration history. The applicant may be denied permanent or temporary entrance to Australia if they do not fulfil the character and health standards.Which state is easy to get PR in Australia? ›
Talking about which state is easy to get PR in Australia, Tasmania is on the top. However, you can also consider New South Wales and South Australia for PR. New South Wales is the best option to pursue higher studies and work in Australia.Which is the most cutest country? ›
- New Zealand. #1 in Scenic. #11 in Best Countries Overall. ...
- Greece. #2 in Scenic. #25 in Best Countries Overall. ...
- Italy. #3 in Scenic. #14 in Best Countries Overall. ...
- Switzerland. #4 in Scenic. #1 in Best Countries Overall. ...
- Spain. #5 in Scenic. #16 in Best Countries Overall. ...
- Norway. #6 in Scenic. ...
- Australia. #7 in Scenic. ...
- Ireland. #8 in Scenic.
|Rank||Country||Percent Feeling Love|
- Switzerland. #1 in Best Countries Overall. ...
- Germany. #2 in Best Countries Overall. ...
- Canada. #3 in Best Countries Overall. ...
- United States. #4 in Best Countries Overall. ...
- Sweden. #5 in Best Countries Overall. ...
- Japan. #6 in Best Countries Overall. ...
- Australia. #7 in Best Countries Overall. ...
- United Kingdom. #8 in Best Countries Overall.
Is Australia richer than UK? ›
Australia's average wealth is just 1.8 times our median wealth; by contrast the UK's is 2.2 times greater, while the US is second worst out of the top 50, at 6.7 times.Is Australia poorer than India? ›
reports India's total wealth is more than Australia, France, Canada and Italy while the US and China top the list of the wealthiest countries in the world, according to a report by New World Wealth.Who is richer Australia or Canada? ›
Based on internationally comparable data, Australia currently enjoys a four percentage-point advantage over Canada in both the level of productivity—that is, the level of goods and services produced (output produced per hour worked)—and average income, as measured by per-person gross domestic product (GDP).Why is Australia called a nickname? ›
Other epithets and nicknames
Australia is colloquially known as "the Land Down Under" (or just "Down Under"), which derives from the country's position in the Southern Hemisphere, at the antipodes of the United Kingdom.
It was the English explorer Matthew Flinders who made the suggestion of the name we use today. He was the first to circumnavigate the continent in 1803, and used the name 'Australia' to describe the continent on a hand drawn map in 1804.What are the 14 countries of Australia? ›
The Oceania region includes 14 countries: Australia, Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, New Zealand, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu.How many days are sufficient for Australia? ›
If you've got a week to 10 days
For a more immersive Australian experience, six to 10 days is often enough to get a good taste of what Australia has to offer (though we're sure you'll leave wanting more). With this amount of time, your best bet is to pick a coast – either the east or the west.
In reality, a full lap of Australia could be done anywhere between three to four months, but to take in the sights and enjoy yourself along the way, you'd want to leave about a year. For most people looking to experience the country, they don't have this kind of time.Can you do Australia and New Zealand in 3 weeks? ›
For this reason, if you invest the time and money to see them both on the same trip, you need to have a well thought out plan to maximize your time. In this three week Australia and New Zealand itinerary we cover as many of the highlights as comfortably possible within a three week period.How much money do I need for 7 days in Australia? ›
You should plan to spend around AU$192 ($130) per day on your vacation in Australia, which is the average daily price based on the expenses of other visitors. Past travelers have spent, on average, AU$42 ($28) on meals for one day and AU$37 ($25) on local transportation.
Is 5 days enough in Australia? ›
Five days is a quick trip to Australia—you'll want to embark on a regional adventure to make the most of your time. A tour of Sydney offers stops at all the popular landmarks and a day trip to the Blue Mountains. Or, explore Far North Queensland, including the Great Barrier Reef and Daintree Rainforest.What is the best month to travel to Australia? ›
September to November & March to May are best time to visit Australia. Most of the tourists opt for these months to visit Australia. The weather during these seasons is neither too hot nor too cold that makes it perfect to have a walk around Australia.What is best time to visit Australia? ›
Spring and autumn are among the best times to travel the entire country. International flights to Australia are more affordable than in summer; the weather is warming up (or cooling down from summer highs); and the north, from Broome to Cairns, experiences the dry season, offering perfect travel conditions.What are the rules entering Australia? ›
Australia's border requirements are changing from 6 July 2022. Travellers entering or leaving Australia will not need to provide evidence of vaccination status. People entering Australia will no longer be required to complete a Digital Passenger Declaration or Maritime Travel Declaration.What is the cheapest way to travel around Australia? ›
Traveling by long-distance bus is the best budget option
Australia's extensive bus network is a reliable way to get between towns and cities, but distances are often vast so be prepared for long days, or nights.
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- Hyundai Tucson.
Expenses and Infrastructure
In terms of accommodations, Australia is generally more expensive than New Zealand. You'll find the highest costs in the major cities of Sydney and Melbourne, while smaller cities like Perth and Adelaide will be more affordable.
It usually makes sense to start with New Zealand: Since you make up time flying from there to Australia and arrive just two hours after you departed, you can still fit a lot into your travel day.What is the best month to visit Australia and New Zealand? ›
March to May are the best months to visit Australia and New Zealand to avoid the crowds. The summer tourists of the Southern Hemisphere have already gone and the winter season has not yet set in across both countries. The heat in Australia becomes manageable and New Zealand remains comfortably warm.